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TitleThe status of Johnson noise thermometry
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1996
AuthorsWhite, D.R., Galleano R., Actis A., Brixy H., De Groot M., Dubbeldam J., Reesink A.L., Edler F., Sakurai H., Shepard R.L., and Gallop J.C.
Pagination325 - 335
Date Published1996
ISSN00261394 (ISSN)
KeywordsElectric impedance, History, Johnson noise thermometry, Materials, Noise thermometers, Nyquist theorem, Planck constant, Sensors, Spurious signal noise, Temperature measurement, Thermal noise, Thermodynamics, Thermometers
AbstractSince Johnson's experimental observations of thermal noise in 1927, and Nyquist's explanation of the phenomenon shortly afterwards in 1928, thermal noise has attracted interest as a means of measuring temperature. The independence of the thermal noise from the material nature of the sensor makes it particularly attractive for metrological applications. However, the noise signals are extremely small and some ingenuity is required to make accurate measurements. This paper reviews the foundations of Johnson noise thermometry and the various techniques that have been employed to measure temperature via Johnson noise. Emphasis is placed on key developments in noise thermometers for metrological applications. The review includes the current activities of teams involved in noise thermometry research.

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