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TitleIn situ observation of strain development and porosity evolution in nanoporous gold foils
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsDotzler, C.J., Ingham B., Illy B.N., Wallwork K., Ryan M.P., and Toney M.F.
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Pagination3938 - 3946
Date Published2011
ISSN1616301X (ISSN)
KeywordsAcid concentrations, Average strain, Bicontinuous, Capillary force, Coarsening, Crystallographic orientations, Dealloying, Diffraction, Dissolution, Dissolution stage, Gold, In-situ, In-situ observations, morphology, Morphology evolution, Nanoporous gold, Nitric acid, Open circuits, Quasi-periodic, Real time, Scattering, Self-similar, Small angle X-ray scattering, Strain anisotropies, Strain development, Strong correlation, Surface area, Time dependence, X ray diffraction, X ray diffraction analysis, X ray scattering
AbstractThe formation of nanoporous gold by open circuit dealloying of 100 nm AgAu foils in nitric acid is investigated in situ and in real time by combining synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The time dependence of the dealloying is followed as a function of acid concentration. For all concentrations, several characteristic dealloying stages are observed. Firstly, there is a fast initial dissolution stage with an increase in surface area due to pore and mound formation; this leads to strain in the nanoporous gold that results from an increase in capillary pressure. After dissolution is complete, there is rapid coarsening of the quasi-periodic, pore-ligament morphology. During this later stage, we deduce strong strain anisotropies that can be explained by preferred crystallographic orientation of ligaments. This rapid coarsening stage is followed by a slow coarsening stage where the SAXS patterns, and hence the quasi-periodic morphology, is self-similar in time. There is a strong correlation between the morphology evolution and strain development, which can be explained by capillary forces. The formation and coarsening of nanoporous gold by dealloying is studied with in situ X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering. Distinct characteristic dealloying stages are observed. The initial formation of pores and mounds results in an increase of the average strain due to capillary forces. After dissolution, strain is reduced due to self-similar coarsening of a bicontinuous morphology. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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