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TitleSea ice growth rates near ice shelves
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsSmith, I.J., Langhorne P.J., Frew R.D., Vennell R., and Haskell T.G.
JournalCold Regions Science and Technology
Pagination57 - 70
Date Published2012
ISSN0165232X (ISSN)
KeywordsAntarctica, Crystal growth, East Antarctica, growth rate, heat flux, Heat transport, Heat-up, ice crystal, Ice crystal growth, Ice crystals, Ice formations, ice shelf, Ice shelves, Ice surfaces, ice-ocean interaction, Isotopes, McMurdo Sound, Ocean observations, Oceanic flow, Oceanic heat flux, Oceanography, Oxygen, oxygen isotope, Oxygen isotopes, Platelet crystals, Platelets, Rate measurements, Sea ice, Sea ice formations, Sea ice growth, supercooling, Temperature measurement
AbstractSea ice growth rates near ice shelves are influenced by ocean-ice shelf interactions. Sea ice growth rates and ocean observations from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica in 1999 and 2000 are presented in this paper. Growth rate measurements were made for an individual platelet crystal through video camera observations. It was found that the crystal grew in discontinuous, episodic bursts at rates of the order of 10 -6ms -1. Sea water 0.15m beneath the lower ice surface was measured to be supercooled by 0.01K. Indications are that supercooling was continuous over the period of episodic platelet ice crystal growth and the growth bursts are attributed to the influence of variable currents. Growth rates for bulk sea ice (i.e., columnar and incorporated platelet ice) and heat fluxes were derived from ice temperature measurements. The growth rates for bulk sea ice were found to be of the order of 10 -7m s -1, an order of magnitude less than the rates for the individual platelet ice crystal. The residual of the energy balance suggested that a negative oceanic heat flux (i.e., heat transport down into the ocean) occurred, in addition to conduction of heat up into the atmosphere. Both salinity-based growth rate models and an oxygen isotope-based growth rate model (Eicken, 1998) were found to under-predict growth rates compared to those derived from ice temperature measurements. In addition, inverting the growth rates predicted by the models and integrating over the depth of the core failed to accurately predict the date of initial sea ice formation. Modifications are proposed to the models for sea ice formation occurring near ice shelves, where platelet ice formation is likely. Differences between bulk and individual platelet ice crystal growth rates are discussed with reference to heat fluxes, oceanic flows and the Eicken (1998) model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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