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TitleExtraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: Analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsCatchpole, O.J., Grey J.B., Perry N.B., Burgess E.J., Redmond W.A., and Porter N.G.
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Pagination4853 - 4860
Date Published2003
ISSN00218561 (ISSN)
Keywordsarticle, black pepper, capsaicin, Capsicum, Carbon dioxide, dimethyl ether, Fatty Alcohols, food analysis, food composition, ginger, gingerol, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Methyl Ethers, pepper, Piper nigrum, piperine, Plant Extracts, propane, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, quantitative analysis, Solvents, Supercritical fluid extraction, Zingiber officinale
AbstractGinger, black pepper, and chili powder were extracted using near-critical carbon dioxide, propane, and dimethyl ether on a laboratory scale to determine the overall yield and extraction efficiency for selected pungent components. The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether. The pungency of the extracts was determined by using an NMR technique developed for this work. The volatiles contents of ginger and black pepper extracts were also determined. Extraction of all spice types was carried out with acetone to compare overall yields. Subcritical dimethyl ether was as effective at extracting the pungent principles from the spices as supercritical carbon dioxide, although a substantial amount of water was also extracted. Subcritical propane was the least effective solvent. All solvents quantitatively extracted the gingerols from ginger. The yields of capsaicins obtained by supercritical CO2 and dimethyl ether were similar and approximately double that extracted by propane. The yield of piperines obtained by propane extraction of black pepper was low at ∼10% of that achieved with dimethyl ether and CO2, but improved with increasing extraction temperature.

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